The second component of Patanjali’s Yoga path is called niyama, which includes virtuous habits, behaviors and observances (the “dos”).Sadhana Pada lists the niyamas as:

  1. Shaucha (शौच): purity, clearness of mind, speech and body
  2. Santosha (संतोष): contentment, acceptance of others, acceptance of one’s circumstances as they are in order to get past or change them, optimism for self
  3. Tapas (तपस्): persistence, perseverance, austerity
  4. Svadhyaya (स्वाध्याय): study of Vedas (see Sabdain epistemology section), study of self, self-reflection, introspection of self’s thoughts, speeches and actions
  5. Ishvarapranidhana (ईश्वरप्रणिधान): contemplation of the Ishvara (God/Supreme Being, Brahman, True Self, Unchanging Reality)